International Journal of Clinical Research & Trials Volume 6 (2021), Article ID 6:IJCRT-157, 8 pages
Research Article
Artificial Intelligence in Colorectal Polyp Detection and Characterization

Alexander Le, Moro O. Salifu and Isabel M. McFarlane*

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, USA
Dr. Isabel M. McFarlane, Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, Director, Third Year Internal Medicine Clerkship, Department of Internal Medicine, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA Tel: 718-270-2390, Fax: 718-270-1324; E-mail:
05 March 2021; 18 March 2021; 20 March 2021
Le A, Salifu MO, McFarlane IM (2021) Artificial Intelligence in Colorectal Polyp Detection and Characterization. Int J Clin Res Trials 6: 157. doi:


Background: Over the past 20 years, the advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning (DL) has allowed for fast sorting and analysis of large sets of data. In the field of gastroenterology, colorectal screening procedures produces an abundance of data through video and imaging. With AI and DL, this information can be used to create systems where automatic polyp detection and characterization is possible. Convoluted Neural Networks (CNNs) have proven to be an effective way to increase polyp detection and ultimately adenoma detection rates. Different methods of polyp characterization of being hyperplastic vs. adenomatous or non-neoplastic vs. neoplastic has also been investigated showing promising results.
Findings: The rate of missed polyps on colonoscopy can be as high as 25%. At the beginning of the 2000s, hand-crafted machine learning (ML) algorithms were created and trained retrospectively on colonoscopy images and videos, achieving high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of over 90% in many of the studies. Over time, the advancement of DL and CNNs has allowed algorithms to be trained on non-medical images and applied retrospectively to colonoscopy videos and images with similar results. Within the past few years, these algorithms have been applied in real-time colonoscopies and has shown mixed results, one showing no difference while others showing increased polyp detection.
Various methods of polyp characterization have also been investigated. Through AI, DL, and CNNs polyps can be identified has hyperplastic/adenomatous or non-neoplastic/neoplastic with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. One of the research areas in polyp characterization is how to capture the polyp image. This paper looks at different modalities of characterizing polyps such as magnifying narrow band imaging (NBI), endocytoscopy, laser-induced florescent spectroscopy, auto-florescent endoscopy, and white-light endoscopy.
Conclusions: Overall, much progress has been made in automatic detection and characterization of polyps in real time. Barring ethical or mass adoption setbacks, it is inevitable that AI will be involved in the field of GI, especially in colorectal polyp detection and identification.