International Journal of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Volume 6 (2020), Article ID 6:IJPTR-169, 4 pages
Japanese Super Aging Society and Frailty Syndrome

Hatsue Saito1, Mayuko Kimura1 and Susumu Ito1,2,*

1Wellness Research Centre, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan
2High-Tech Research Centre, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan
Prof. Susumu Ito, High-Tech Research Centre, Kokushikan University, Tokyo, Japan; E-mail:
15 December 2020; 28 December 2020; 30 December 2020
Saito H, Kimura M, Ito S (2020) Japanese Super Aging Society and Frailty Syndrome. Int J Phys Ther Rehab 6: 169. doi:


In the developed countries including Japan, the average life expectancy is expected to exceed 90 years in the near future. And major causes of death of the super-elderly shift from cancer and cardiac infarction to senility, dementia and pneumonia. These diseases of super-elderly are related to gradual deterioration of both physical and mental abilities to maintain proper condition of daily activities. Several terms have been suggested to describe weaken condition of the super-elderly such as geriatric syndrome, locomotive syndrome, sarcopenia and frailty. Among them, frailty seems to provide an easy-to-understand concept as a word that comprehensively captures both physical and mental deterioration caused by aging. Cycle of frailty causes not only sarcopenia and undernutrition but also decline of life defence mechanism including immune system, homeostasis and surface barrier system. To prevent from the frailty, muscle training, especially resistant muscle training, has been reported as beneficial. Traditional resistance trainings for elderly including Yoga in India, Tai chi, Falun Gong and Qigong in China, may be beneficial since those trainings use abdominal breathing. In Japan, Judo exercises are also tried to prevent the frailty.