International Journal of Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Volume 6 (2020), Article ID 6:IJPTR-167, 2 pages
Mini Review
Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Female Swimmers

Eisuke Hiruma

Department of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Japan
Prof. Eisuke Hiruma, Department of Sport and Medical Science, Teikyo University, 359 Otsuka, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0395, Japan; E-mail:
23 November 2020; 01 December 2020; 03 December 2020
Hiruma E (2020) Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Female Swimmers. Int J Phys Ther Rehab 6: 167. doi:


The purpose of this review study is to present the effect of swimming practice on bone mineral density in prepubertal female children as compared with the same age of children and gymnasts following former studies. The bone mineral density of prepubertal swimmers is the same as that of general girls. The impact load from the vertical direction increases the bone mineral density of the several sites in female gymnasts, but the increase in bone mineral density of swimmers due to mechanical stimulation may not be observed.