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International Journal of Clinical Research & Trials Volume 4 (2019), Article ID 4:IJCRT-132, 05 pages
https://doi.org/10.15344/2456-8007/2019/132
Scoping Study
Marijuana and Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Scoping Study

Pramod Theetha Kariyanna1, Perry Wengrofsky2, Apoorva Jayarangaiah3, Syed Haseeb2, Louis Salciccioli1, Sudhanva Hegde1, Jonathan D. Marmur1, Yasmin Soliman2, Sama Al-Bayati2 and Samy I. McFarlane2*

1Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
2Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
3Department of Internal Medicine, NYC Health and Hospitals/Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Prof. Samy I. McFarlane, Divisions of Cardiovascular Disease,and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York,11203, USA, Tel: 718- 270-6707, Fax: 718-270-4488; E-mail: smcfarlane@downstate.edu
18 December 2018; 20 February 2019; 22 February 2019
Kariyanna PT, Wengrofsky P, Jayarangaiah A, Haseeb S, Salciccioli L, et al. (2019) Marijuana and Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Scoping Study. Int J Clin Res Trials 4: 132. doi: https://doi.org/10.15344/2456-8007/2019/132
This work is supported, in part, by the efforts of Dr. Moro O. Salifu M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A., M.A.C.P., Professor and Chairman of Medicine through NIH Grant number S21MD012474.

Abstract

With increasing legalization, marijuana has become the most commonly abused substance in the United States. Together with the introduction of more potent marijuana products over the years, more adverse events are being reported and clinically characterized. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active psychotropic component of marijuana, which acts mainly on G-protein cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Multiple isolated cases of arrhythmias associated with marijuana use have been published. In this manuscript we conduct a scoping study of a total of 27 cases of arrhythmia associated with marijuana. Most cases were reported in young males (81%) with a mean age of 28 ± 10.6 years. Atrial fibrillation (26%) and ventricular fibrillation (22%) were the most common arrhythmias reported. Brugada pattern was reported in 19% of the patients. Marijuana associated arrhythmia resulted in a high mortality rate of 11 %. While the exact mechanisms of arrhythmias associated with marijuana are not clear, several hypothesis have been introduced including the effect of marijuana on cardiac ion channels as well as its effects on the central nervous system. In this paper we discuss the possible mechanisms of marijuana induced arrhythmia citing the evidence available to-date.