Graphy Publications
Inspiring Innovations & Discoveries
International Journal of Pediatrics & Neonatal Care Volume 5 (2019), Article ID 5:IJPNC-151, 9 pages
Research Article
Characteristics Associated with Improvement Following the SAM Robot Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Jenna B Lebersfeld*, Caleb Brasher, Fred Biasini and Maria Hopkins

University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States
Jenna B Lebersfeld, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States, Tel: (561) 322-5253; E-mail:
04 January 2019; 12 March 2019; 14 March 2019
Lebersfeld JB, Brasher C, Biasini F, Hopkins M (2019) Characteristics Associated with Improvement Following the SAM Robot Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int J Pediatr Neonat Care 5: 151. doi:


  1. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition), Washington, D.C.: Author, USA,
  2. Narzisi A, Muratori F, Calderoni S, Fabbro F, Urgesi C (2013) Neuropsychological profile in high functioning autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 43: 1895-1909. View
  3. Koegel LK, Singh AK, Koegel RL (2010) Improving motivation for academics in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 40: 1057-1066. View
  4. Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen DL, Maenner MJ, Daniels J, et al. (2018) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years- Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summ 67: 1-23. View
  5. Chasson G, Jarosiewicz SR (2014) Social Competence Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders In: Patel, VB, Preedy, VR, Martin, CR (Ed) Comprehensive Guide to Autism, Springer-Verlag, USA, pp. 1099-1118. View
  6. Back E, Ropar D, Mitchell P (2007) Do the eyes have it? Inferring mental states from animated faces in autism. Child Dev 78: 397-411. View
  7. Grossmann T, Johnson MH (2007) The development of the social brain in human infancy. Eur J Neurosci 25: 909-919. View
  8. Izard C, Fine S, Schultz D, Mostow A, Ackerman B, et al. (2001) Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behavior and academic competence in children at risk. Psychol Sci 12: 18-23. View
  9. White SW, Keonig K, Scahill L (2007) Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review of the intervention research. J Autism Dev Disord 37: 1858-1868. View
  10. Howlin P (2000) Outcome in adult life for more able individuals with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism 4: 63-83. View
  11. Bohlander AJ, Orlich F, Varley CK (2012) Social skills training for children with autism. Pediatr Clin North Am 59: 165-174. View
  12. Weitlauf AS, McPheeters ML, Peters B, Sathe N, Travis R, et al. (2014) Therapies for children with autism spectrum disorder: Behavioral interventions update, AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, Report No.: 14-EHC036-EF. View
  13. Young RL, Posselt M (2012) Using the Transporters DVD as a learning tool for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). J Autism Dev Disord 42: 984-991. View
  14. Kasari C, Rotheram-Fuller E, Locke J, Gulsrud A (2012) Making the connection: randomized controlled trial of social skills at school for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53: 431-439. View
  15. Kasari C, Paparella T, Freeman S, Jahromi LB (2008) Language outcome in autism: randomized comparison of joint attention and play interventions. J Consult Clin Psychol 76: 125-137. View
  16. Kasari C, Gulsrud AC, Wong C, Kwon S, Locke J (2010) Randomized controlled caregiver mediated joint engagement intervention for toddlers with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 40: 1045-1056. View
  17. Casenhiser DM, Shanker SG, Stieben J (2013) Learning through interaction in children with autism: preliminary data from a social-communicationbased intervention. Autism 17: 220-241. View
  18. Keen D, Couzens D, Muspratt S, Rodger S (2010) The effects of a parentfocused intervention for children with a recent diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder on parenting stress and competence. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 4: 229-241. View
  19. Boyd BA, Hume K, McBee MT, Alessandri M, Gutierrez A, et al. (2014) Comparative efficacy of LEAP, TEACCH and non-model-specific special education programs for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 44: 366-380. View
  20. Landa RJ, Holman KC, O’neill AH, Stuart EA (2011) Intervention targeting development of socially synchronous engagement in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52: 13-21. View
  21. Ingersoll B (2010) Brief report: pilot randomized controlled trial of reciprocal imitation training for teaching elicited and spontaneous imitation to children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 40: 1154-1160. View
  22. Buescher AV, Cidav Z, Knapp M, Mandell DS (2014) Costs of autism spectrum disorders in the United Kingdom and the United States. JAMA Pediatrics 168: 721-728. View
  23. Karst JS, Van Hecke AV (2012) Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation. Cli Child Fam Psychol Rev 15: 247-277. View
  24. Montes G, Halterman JS, Magyar CI (2009) Access to and satisfaction with school and community health services for US children with ASD. Pediatrics 124: S407-S413. View
  25. Bellini S (2006) The development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 21: 138-145. View
  26. Putnam C, Chong L (2008) Software and technologies designed for people with autism: what do users want? In: Proceedings of the 10th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 3–10. View
  27. Kim ES, Berkovits LD, Bernier EP, Leyzberg D, Shic F, et al. (2013) Social robots as embedded reinforcers of social behavior in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 43: 1038-1049. View
  28. Paul R (2008) Interventions to improve communication in autism. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 17: 835-856. View
  29. Duquette A, Michaud F, Mercier H (2008) Exploring the use of a mobile robot as an imitation agent with children with low-functioning autism. Autonomous Robots 24: 147-157. View
  30. Feil-Seifer D, Matari’c MJ (2009) Toward socially assistive robotics for augmenting interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Experimental Robotics: The Eleventh International Symposium 54: 201-210. View
  31. Kozima H, Michalowski MP, Nakagawa C (2009) Keepon. International Journal of Social Robotics 1: 3-18. View
  32. Robins B, Dautenhahn K, Te Boekhorst R, Billard A (2005) Robotic assistants in therapy and education of children with autism: can a small humanoid robot help encourage social interaction skills? Universal Access in the Information Society 4: 105-120. View
  33. Boccanfuso L, O’Kane JM (2011) Charlie: an adaptive robot design with hand and face tracking for use in autism therapy. International Journal of Social Robotics 3: 337-347. View
  34. Boccanfuso L, Scarborough S, Abramson RK, Hall AV, Wright HH, et al. (2017) A low-cost socially assistive robot and robot-assisted intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder: field trials and lessons learned. Autonomous Robots 41: 637-655. View
  35. Scassellati B (2007) How Social Robots Will Help Us to Diagnose, Treat, and Understand Autism In: Robotics Research, Springer, pp. 552-563. View
  36. Diehl JJ, Schmitt LM, Villano M, Crowell CR (2012) The clinical use of robots for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a critical review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 6: 249-262. View
  37. Ricks DJ, Colton MB (2010) Trends and considerations in robot-assisted autism therapy. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 4354-4359. View
  38. Pennisi P, Tonacci A, Tartarisco G, Billeci L, Ruta L, et al. (2016) Autism and social robotics: a systematic review. Autism Res 9: 165-183. View
  39. Koch SA, Stevens CE, Clesi CD, Lebersfeld JB, Sellers AG, et al. (2017) A feasibility study evaluating the emotionally expressive robot SAM. International Journal of Social Robotics 9: 601-613. View
  40. Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, Risi S, Gotham K, et al. (2012) Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: ADOS-2. Western Psychological Services Los Angeles, CA. View
  41. Kaufman AS, Kaufman NL (2004) Kaufman brief intelligence test, second edition.
  42. Dunn LM, Dunn DM (2007) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.
  43. Benton A, Sivan A, Hamsher K, Varney N, Spreen O (1983) Benton facial recognition test. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR), Incorporated.
  44. Weigelt S, Koldewyn K, Kanwisher N (2012) Face identity recognition in autism spectrum disorders: a review of behavioral studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36: 1060-1084. View
  45. Constantino JN, Gruber CP (2012) Social responsiveness scale. (2nd edition). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. View
  46. MacDonald PM, Kirkpatrick SW, Sullivan LA (1996) Schematic drawings of facial expressions for emotion recognition and interpretation by preschoolaged children. Genet Soc Gen Psychology Monographs 122: 373-388. View
  47. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1975) Unmasking the Face: A Guide to Recognizing Emotions from Facial Clues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. View
  48. Koch SA (2017) Effectiveness and acceptability of a robot-based social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder.
  49. Kerns CM, Renno P, Storch EA, Kendall PC, Wood JJ (2017) Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence-Based Assessment and Treatment. Academic Press. View
  50. Jones RM, Carberry C, Hamo A, Lord C (2017) Placebo-like response in absence of treatment in children with autism. Autism Res 10: 1567-1572. View
  51. Virués-Ortega J (2010) Applied behavior analytic intervention for autism in early childhood: meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response metaanalysis of multiple outcomes. Clin Psychol Rev 30: 387-399. View
  52. Lovaas OI (1987) Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. J Consult Clin Psychol 55: 3-9. View
  53. Loomes R, Hull L, Mandy WPL (2017) What is the male-to-female ratio in autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 56: 466-474. View