Table 2: Summary of Reviewed Articles.
No. Authors (Year) Date of publication Type of article Country/Regions Sample Main findings
1. Li W, et al. (2020) [7] 15 March 2020 Review article China Health care workers and patients` family -Mental health conditions among health care workers: isolation, discrimination, fear, emotional disturbance.
-Mental health conditions among family of patients: bereavement and grief.
-Suggested psychological crisis intervention:Understanding mental health status in the population, identifying people who are at risk for suicide and aggression, and provide appropriate interventions for those in need
2. Walton M, Murray E, Christian MD (2020) [10] 8 April 2020 Review article unspecified Health care workers -Mental health conditions include:Acute stress reaction including emotional; cognitive; physical; and social reaction, moral injury, such as worried to make life support decision for patients; anticipatory guilt, post-traumatic stress disorder, fear of developing symptoms, fear of having brought the illness home
-Suggested interventions by institutions: providing rapid access to counseling
3. Vindegaard N, Benros ME (2020) [22] 16 May 2020 Systematic review China, Hongkong, Spain Health care workers and community people (general public) -Mental health conditions among health care workers: depression/depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychological distress, and poor sleep quality
-Mental health conditions among general public: lower psychological well-being, use of words as indications of anxiety and depression, dream anxiety.
4. de Pablo GS, et al. (2020) [11] 25 June 2020 Systematic review and meta-analysis Unspecified Health care workers -Mental health conditions among physicians, nurses, trainees, and other health professionals: psychological distress, anxiety features, post-traumatic stress disorder features, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and burn out.
5. Pappa S, et al. (2020) [6] 6 May 2020 Systematic review and meta-analysis Unspecified Health care workers -Mental health conditions among physicians, nurses, and other healthcare workers: anxiety, depression, insomnia, mood and sleep disturbances.
-The prevalence of depression and anxiety is higher in females.
-Nursing staff exhibited higher depression and anxiety compared to doctors.
6. Ren X, et al. (2020) [8] 8 July 2020 Meta-analysis China Health care workers and community people (general public) Prevalence among general public and healthcare workers: anxiety (25%) and depression (28%).
7. Salari N, et al. (2020) [19] 6 July 2020 Systematic review and meta-analysis Iran, China, Japan, Nepal, India, Iraq, UK, Spain, Nigeria, Italy General public Prevalence among general population during COVID-19 pandemic: stress (29.6%), anxiety (31.9%), depression (33.7%).
8. Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard IM (2020) [5] 10 June 2020 Original research (online survey) Asia, Australia, Europe, Middle-East, North America, South-America, Sub-Sahara Africa General public -Predictors of fear of coronavirus: health anxiety, regular media use, social media use, and risk for loved one.
-Topics of concern related to coronavirus: health of others, healthcare collapse, consequences for the economy, mass panic, personal health, societal breakdown, personal economy (such as losing job), virus itself, unknowingly spreading virus to others, others not following rules, being in quarantine/lockdown, not trusting government, food/supplies shortage, disruption in personal routine, travel ban, and fake news.
9. Islam SMD, et al. (2020) [20] July 2020 Original research (online survey) Bangladesh General public -Mental health conditions: 85% of participants reported COVID-19 related stress, resulting in sleep shortness, short temper, and chaos in family.
-Main causes of stress: fear of COVID-19 infection, hampering scheduled study plan and future career, and financial difficulties.
10. Hu D, et al. (2020) [12] 27 June 2020 Original research (Cross sectional study, online survey) China Nurses -Nurses had moderate level of burnout, high level of fear, moderate and high level of anxiety and depression.
-The majority of nurses reported one or more skin lesions.
11. Sun N, et al. (2020) [13] June 2020 Original research (Qualitative study, face to face interviews and telephone interview) China Nurses Themes reflecting psychological nurses` experiences caring for patients with COVID-19 patients:
-Negative emotions in early stage, including fatigue, discomfort, and helplessness because of fear and anxiety, high-intensity work, and concern of patients and family members.
-Self-coping styles included psychological and life adjustment, altruistic act, team support, and rational cognition,
-Growth under pressure, including increased affection and gratefulness, development of professional responsibility, and self-reflection,
-Positive emotions occurred simultaneously with negative emotions.
12. Temsah MH, et al. (2020) [14] June 2020 Original research (online survey) Saudi Arabia Health care workers -Mental health conditions among physicians, interns, nurses, midwife, auxiliary services: the anxiety level of COVID-19 was significantly higher than that from MERS-CoV or seasonal influenza.
-The most frequent concern was transmitting the infection to family and friends than to themselves only.
13. Liu Q, et al. (2020) [15] 29 April 2020 Original research (Qualitative study, phone interview) China Health care workers Themes reflecting experiences among nurses and physicians in caring for patients with COVID-19:
-Being fully responsible for patients` well-being
-Challenges of working on COVID-19 wards, including exhaustion due to heavy workloads and protective gear, fear of becoming infected and infecting others, feeling powerless to handle patients` condition, and managing relationship in the stressful situation
-Resilience amid challenges, including source of social support, using self-management strategies to cope with situation, and achieving transcendence from the experience.
14. Alkhamees AA, et al. (2020) [21] October 2020 Original research (online survey) Saudi Arabia General public Mental health conditions include moderate or severe psychological impact of the outbreak, moderate to severe depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms
15. Badahdah A, et al. (2020) [16] 8 July 2020 Original research (Web-based survey) Oman Health care workers Mental health conditions among physicians and nurses: high prevalence of stress, anxiety, and poor psychological well-being, especially among females, young healthcare workers and those who interacted with known or suspected COVID-19 patients.
16. Arpacioglu S, Gurler M, Cakiroglu S (2020) [17] 8 July 2020 Original research (online survey) Turkey Health care workers Mental health conditions among physicians, dentists, nurses, and other healthcare workers:
The anxiety, depression, and secondary traumatization scores of the front health care workers for the COVID-19 were significantly higher than those of the other health care workers or non-medical workers.
17. Que J, et al. (2020) [18] 14 June 2020 Original research (crosssectional, web-based survey) China Health care workers -Healthcare workers include physicians, medical residents, nurses, technicians, and public health professionals.
-Front-line healthcare workers had a higher risk of anxiety, insomnia, and overall psychological problems.
-Factors for the psychological problems: negative or neutral information about pandemic, receiving negative feedback from families and friends who joined front-line work, and unwillingness to join front-line work.
18. Wankowicz P, Szylinska A, Rotter I (2020) [32] 12 August 2020 Original research (crosssectional, hospitalbased study) Poland Health care workers -Healthcare workers who were exposed to patients with SARS-CoV-2 at emergency ward, infectious wards, and ICU are at higher risk for anxiety, sleep disorders, and anxiety than healthcare workers working at other wards.